Early detection of HIV infection, improved screening technologies, advances in antiretroviral and combination drug therapies during the 1990's, as well as prophylactic medications against opportunistic infections all contributed to the dramatic decrease in new cases of AIDS after the peak rate in 1993 and AIDS deaths after 1995. Because of these medical breakthroughs, people living with HIV or AIDS are able to live longer with a "manageable disease".

Grassroots campaign to promote prevention through "safer sex" practices, since the early stages of the epidemic, played a crucial role in the dramatic decrease in HIV infection.

Unfortunately, perhaps because of all the aforementioned successes, there are some alarming trends:
These recent developments are consistent with the halt in the rate of decrease of AIDS deaths than begun to level off since 1997. AIDS is still among the top 5 causes of death among 25-44 yo. In fact, AIDS remains the leading cause of death among African-Americans.

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