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Untitled Trends Untitled Race Untitled Blacks Untitled Asian-Pac Is Untitled Hispanics Untitled Nat Amer Untitled White Untitled Gender Untitled Men Untitled Women
Untitled Age Untitled Children Untitled Teens Untitled (25-44yo) Untitled Transmission: Untitled MSM Untitled IDU Untitled Hetero Untitled Geography

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Untitled AIDS in Children. Prevention of AIDS among children, especially mother-to- child transmission of HIV, is one of the major successes in the fight against AIDS. Similarly, vigorous blood screening essentially eliminated almost all cases of pediatric AIDS due to blood transfusion and among hemophiliacs. [View AIDS in Children <13 Years of Age by Exposure Category Reported in 2000 and Cumulative (US)36.]

All these have resulted in dramatic drop in AIDS cases among children (< 13 yo), especially pediatric cases (see Figure 1).

Injection drug use (IDU) has been the major cause of HIV infection of pregnant women responsible for perinatal HIV transmission during the 1980s. Since the early 1990's there has been a dramatic rise in heterosexual transmission of HIV to women (see Figure 2) -- especially among African-Americans and Hispanics -- now accounting for most of recent cases perinatal HIV transmission. This dramatic shift is reflected the cases of pediatric HIV infection, disproportionately affecting ethnic minorities, especially African-Americans and Hispanics (see Figure 3).

It is possible to reduce perinatal HIV transmission (mother-to-child transmission of HIV) through treatment of the HIV-infected mother with antiretroviral drugs (e.g., ZDV) during the course of pregnancy, careful delivery and no breastfeeding. Continued treatment of the child with antiretroviral drugs reduces progression to AIDS, if the child was still infected. Success in reduction of perinatal HIV transmission in a a number of states in the US came from implementation of aggressive testing, counseling and treatment36 of pregnant women.

The above precautions require early screening of pregnant women, for possible HIV infection. Unfortunately, the most recent cases of pediatric HIV infection disproportionately affect ethnic minorities, especially African-Americans and Hispanics (see Figure 3). Pregnant women among these groups, especially those who are at great risk (see Figure 2) are less likely or unable (to afford) the prenatal care needed for early detection of possible HIV infection needed to implement protocol to reduce perinatal HIV transmission .

Figure 1
Untitled Perinatally Acquired AIDS Cases* by Quarter-Year of Diagnosis, 1985-1999 (US)36

Figure 2
Untitled Mother's Exposure Category by Year of Diagnosis for Perinatally Acquired AIDS, 1982-1999 (US)36. View cumulative pie graphs.

Figure 3
Untitled AIDS in Children <13 Years of Age, Reported in 2000 and 2000 Population Estimates of Children by Race/Ethnicity (US)36

Untitled Visit CDC Slide Sets for the latest, as well as the slides links and other links included below for more detailed graphical and descriptive analysis of AIDS in the United States. Visit the special section on Pediatric HIV/AIDS Surveillance (outlined below).

  • Untitled Slides
    Notes and Footnotes:
    • Untitled Use the icons (e.g., "AIDS Primer", "AIDS in America", etc.) as well as the underlined items to jump from one section to another. Also, most of the figures and illustrations shown here are linked to their original sources.
    • Untitled Unless otherwise specified, all the statistical AIDS data and resulting figures presented for the United States were from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC is the major US federal agency responsible for the surveillance and dissemination of information on HIV and AIDS in the United States. The various information databases created by CDC are integrated, along with other AIDS databases from other sources, in the A-Z navigation index of AIDS Primer.
    • Untitled Click on Literature Sources to access the source of the information database, specified as superscript after each topic link.