DiarrheaJAMA Uncontrolled, loose, and frequent bowel movements. In the United States, almost all people with AIDS
develop diarrhea at some time in the course of their disease. Severe or prolonged diarrhea can lead to
weight loss and malnutrition. The excessive loss of fluid that may occur with AIDS-related diarrhea can
be life-threatening. There are many possible causes of diarrhea in people who have AIDS. The most
common infectious organisms causing AIDS-related diarrhea include cytomegalovirus (CMV); the
parasites Cryptosporidium, Microsporida, and Giardia lamblia; and the bacterium Mycobacterium avium-
inracellulare (MAC). Other bacteria and parasites that cause diarrheal symptoms in otherwise healthy
people may cause more severe, prolonged, or recurrent diarrhea in people with HIV or Aids. See Also
Cytomegalovirus; Giardiasis; Microsporidiosis; mycobacterium Avium Complex .
frequent, loose bowel movements. Diarrhea may be caused
by a variety of factors including bacteria (e.g., Mycobacterium avium,
Salmonella), viruses (e.g., CMV), parasites (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum,
Giardia) and drug use. Persistent diarrhea is common in persons with HIV
disease and may lead to wasting due to inadequate nutrient absorption.
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